Immunotherapy for Cancer: Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs)
Immunotherapy is a way of treating disease using the body's immune system. This therapy is used in treating some cancers. One therapy is called monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). These are manufactured proteins that target specific parts of cancer cells to destroy them. mAbs are most often used along with other cancer treatments. This sheet tells you more about mAbs and what to expect if they are part of your treatment plan.
How monoclonal antibodies work
Cancer cells are cells that have changed and become abnormal. Sometimes these cells produce large amounts of proteins on their surface. mAbs can be created in a lab to recognize these specific proteins. Once recognized, they can attach themselves to the cancer cells. The mAb may destroy the cancer cell by itself, or it may get help from the body's immune system. Some mAbs carry specialized chemotherapy, toxins, or radiation directly to the cancer cells. Once cancer cells have been killed, mAbs can be used to prevent them from coming back.
Possible side effects of monoclonal antibodies
mAbs can cause side effects. These side effects are most likely to occur at the time of treatment. Common side effects include:
Other side effects depend on the type of mAb being used. Your doctor can tell you more about what side effects to expect and how to manage them.
How monoclonal antibodies are given
mAbs are given through an IV line. This is a plastic needle that is put into a vein in the arm or a thin tube (catheter) placed into a larger vein. It allows the antibodies to be delivered directly into the bloodstream. The treatment may be done at a hospital, clinic, or doctor's office. Each infusion may take as little as 30 minutes or more than 4 hours depending on the mAb. How often the treatment is needed and how long depends on the type of cancer you have and the mAb being given.
When to call your healthcare provider
Call your healthcare provider if you have any of the following:
Fever of 100.4 ºF (38 ºC) or higher, or as directed by your healthcare provider
Trouble breathing, wheezing
Swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat
Rash or hives
Dizziness or lightheadedness
Uncontrolled nausea and vomiting
Diarrhea that doesn't improve over time
Any new symptom, or one that causes concern
Monitoring your progress
During the course of your treatment, you'll have routine visits with your doctor. These allow your doctor to check your health and response to the treatment. After treatment ends, you and your doctor will discuss your treatment results. You'll also discuss whether you need additional cancer treatments.